Organic Phosphorus (such as sodium phosphate, calcium phosphate) are often referred to as active phosphorus because only this phosphate reacts directly with the reagents used in the assay for the determination of phosphate in colorimetric methods. This type of phosphate is used by plants, bacteria and algae and is considered to be a limiting nutrient in surface water such as lakes.
While organic phosphorus is a carbon-phosphorus-containing compound or an organic group-containing phosphoric acid derivative.
Organic phosphorus compounds of phosphorus atoms available d orbit, the price is more, mainly in the following categories: ① three coordination phosphorus compounds. For the sp3 (inequality) hybrid triangular pyramidal configuration, the phosphorus atom with the lone pair electrons. Trivalent phosphorus compounds have electrophilic, amphiphilic and pro-diene reaction characteristics, the reaction can often form a strong PO bond. For example, trialkyl phosphines and trialkyl phosphites are trivalent phosphorus compounds.
Due to the large volume of phosphorus atoms, the electronegativity is small, the trialkyl phosphine nucleophilic and alkaline than the trialkylamine. Phosphine with 3 different alkyl groups can be resolved into optical isomers. The trialkyl phosphine is also easily coordinated with the transition metal to form a homogeneous catalyst with properties. ② four complex phosphorus compounds. The sp3-hybrid tetrahedron configuration includes quaternary phosphonium ion R4P + and is formally pentavalent phosphoryl compound X3PO. The PO bond of these compounds is highly stable. The optical isomers of tetrahedral phosphorus compounds are easier to distinguish. ③ five coordination of phosphorus compounds. For the sp3d hybrid triangular double cone (hexahedral) configuration, for example, the phosphine: penta-coordinated Organic Phosphorus have a series of molecular recombination properties, and many tetra-coordinated Organic Phosphorus compounds form five complex intermediates in the reaction The ④ six coordination phosphorus compounds.
For the sp3d2 hybrid quadrilateral biconvex (octahedral) configuration, such as the six coordination of phosphorus anions and cyclic phosphates: these compounds are very lively, not much research. In addition, the study of mono- and di-coordinated phosphorus compounds is currently widespread. Organophosphorus compounds in nucleic acids, coenzymes, organophosphate toxic gases, organophosphorus insecticides, organophosphorus fungicides, organophosphorus herbicides, chemotherapeutic agents, plasticizers, antioxidants, surfactants, complexing agents, organophosphorus Extraction agents, flotation agents and flame retardants and other aspects of a wide range of applications.